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Campbell D.B., Roman Roman Legionary fortresses 27 BC – AD 378. Fortress Series 43. Osprey Military Publishing, 2007. p. 63.


    Permanent, Roman Fort.

    Silchester Roman City Walls, reconstruction drawing by Ivan Lapper

    Campbell D.B., Roman Auxiliary forts 27 BC – AD 378. Fortress Series 83. Osprey Military Publishing, 2009. p. 58.

    Emperor Trajan Fleet during the first Dacian War.

    Late Roman bowman from Legio VII Gemina Felix Cohors V Baetica.

    Roman bicircumvallation. A circumvallation is a line of fortifications, built by the attackers around the besieged fortification facing towards the enemy fort. The resulting fortifications are known as 'lines of circumvallation'. They generally consist of earthen ramparts and entrenchments that encircle the besieged city. The line of circumvallation can be used as a base for launching assaults against the besieged city or for constructing further earthworks closer to the city.

    roman siege methods

    Roman camp (castrum) ~ ANNEE 55 av JC: Germains et Bretons, 3) I° EXPEDITION EN BRETAGNE, 10: Les Bretons, voyant les Romains en grande détresse, sans navires, ni vivres, ni cavalerie, forment une ligue pour reprendre la lutte. Alors que la 7° légion part pour chercher des vivres, elle est prise dans une embuscade, la cavalerie et les chars bretons infligeant des pertes importantes aux légionnaires.

    Osaka Castle 1614

    (140 BCE - 200 CE) Roman Military Camp

    Lunari city walls

    Roman Castrum - Biriciana (Germany) - Reconstruction